The Reliability of the Gnostic Gospels


This essay considers the reliability of the Gnostic Gospels while contrasting them to the canonical Gospels. A few months ago, I wrote an article about the historical reliability of the Gospels. I argued that the Gospels do give us reliable history. This time, I want to look at the flipside of that issue. As you may know, there are other gospels besides the four that we have in the canon of our Bible today (or, more accurately, there are other books that claim to be Gospels). In the early centuries of Christianity, several people wrote books claiming to relate teachings and stories about Jesus, but the Church eventually accepted only four of them as authentic.

In this article, I want to look a bit at these other gospels. Now, there are a lot of them, so we can’t look at them individually. Instead, I want to talk a bit about what is probably the largest and most well-known group of non-biblical gospels, the Gnostic gospels. The Gnostics were an early (heretical) Christian group that had some very, very strange beliefs.

The Gnostics

For example, they believed that the material world is bad and only the spiritual world is good. To go along with that, they also believed that we all have a spark of the divine within us and that salvation is achieved through secret knowledge that allows that spark to escape the material world (the Greek word for knowledge is “gnosis,” and that’s where we get the word “gnostic”). Suffice it to say, they were very far removed from the orthodox Christians, the ones whose beliefs we today would recognize as normal Christianity.

These gospels present Jesus and his ministry very differently from the biblical gospels, so they raise some obvious questions for us: Do they contain reliable history? Is the real Jesus the one we find in these books or is the real Jesus the one about whom we read  in the New Testament? We don’t have room in a single article to go through these Gnostic gospels one by one, but I would like to give some thoughts on them as a whole, thoughts that already tip the scales against these books before we even begin looking at them individually.

Gnostics, Jesus, and Judaism

To begin, I want first to focus on something else the Gnostics believed. They thought that the God of the New Testament was the true God and that the God of the Old Testament was a lesser deity. As a result, they created a sharp divide between the two Testaments, making their religion at best only tangentially related to the Old Testament and Judaism and at worst directly antagonistic towards them. And that raises a question for us, The Jesus, in which scenario, seems more likely to be the real Jesus in actual history?:

1) The Gnostic Jesus, who at best is only tangentially linked to the Old Testament and at worst is directly opposed to it, was the real Jesus. Later some people distorted his teachings, and turned him into the fulfillment of all the hopes and expectations of the Old Testament.

2) Jesus really did present himself as the fulfillment of the Old Testament. Later, when Christianity and Judaism grew apart, people began to distort his message and to present it as almost entirely non-Jewish.

The second scenario seems a lot more probable to me. I find it hard to believe that someone would find a figure at best tangentially related to the Jewish faith and at worst directly opposed to it and then turn him into its long-awaited Messiah. There is simply not much of a reason for anybody to want to do that. However, we can easily understand why someone, who lived after the break between Judaism and Christianity, and who, being spurred by that break, reinvented Jesus as a non-Jewish preacher.

Since that second scenario is much more likely, we can see right off the bat that the biblical Gospels are almost certainly more reliable than the Gnostic ones.

Apostolic Succession or Secret Transmission

And there is another reason to doubt the historical reliability of the Gnostic gospels. When we look at the records we have of the arguments between Gnostics and orthodox Christians, we find something very telling. The orthodox Christians could trace their teachings back to the Apostles themselves. They had lists of bishops in various cities, and those lists showed that their beliefs were passed on from generation to generation, stretching all the way back to the beginning of the Church.

The Gnostics, on the other hand, could do no such thing. They claimed to pass on secret teachings of Jesus that weren’t proclaimed publicly. Instead, their doctrines were supposedly passed down clandestinely and were hidden from the majority of Christians., That sounds like they were just trying to save face. It sounds like they knew that they could not trace their teachings back to the Apostles, so they had to make up an excuse to explain why they could not. So again, we have reason to doubt their historical reliability.


Granted, none of this proves without a shadow of a doubt that the orthodox Christians were right. It is possible that somebody did take a non-Jewish (or at least barely Jewish) figure and turn him into the fulfillment of the Old Testament or that there really were some teachings of Jesus that were handed down secretly to only a few people. From a purely historical perspective, absolute certainty is impossible. Nevertheless, the Gnostic scenarios are hard to believe. The whole enterprise of Gnosticism and the idea of a Gnostic Jesus just don’t have much inherent historical plausibility, so it is much more likely that the biblical Gospels are accurate.

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2 thoughts on “The Reliability of the Gnostic Gospels”

  1. Just for clarification, I meant some gnostic groups 2,000 years ago were not antagonistic to the Old Testament. There is a typo in there.

  2. Hello, I just want to offer a difference perspective/experience. The gnostic gospels are traditionally described in the ways mentioned above in modern times by most scholars and theological compare and contrast points of view, but it lacks a certain whole picture approach that can be clarified by a student of Gnosticism.
    Early gnostic groups sometimes were early Jewish Christians, who also saw no division in the old and new testaments, except for Covenant and fulfillment of meaning through YESHUA. An example we see in the classical gnostic text of Pistis Sophia, or Holy Wisdom who’s character can be seen tied to the Old Testament, including the book of proverbs, job, etc. in her repentances for her transgressions in which she is asking for salvation, ultimately for all humanity, through Christ the Savior, she pairs her apologies with the Psalms of David, as Jesus also refers to them in his teaching and ministry. We see here a Gnosticism that is born antagonistic to the Old Testament.
    It is true most Gnostics do have a bone to pick with the material world, but not because they believe it is all bad, black and white, good vs. evil. More so; most Gnostics saw this world as an intercepted realm who was governed by fallen energies who also were in ignorance and needing of Restoration to the True Light. The material realm many Gnostics in their gospels also spoke of as divine work of God’s spirit creating it without the knowing or understanding of this intercepting fallen consciousness, as there were sparks of Light in everything and everyone.
    Some of the gnostic gospels like Thomas actually do have lineages that trace back, as with Thomas Christianity in India. Mary being a woman in Jewish law wasn’t usually considered a worthy apostle in many of the social traditions, although she was the first witness of the Resurrection, has a rich tradition that followed her even to France possibly. Many Gnostics were not actually in opposition to orthodoxy the way modern times assume, but rather it eventually was the other way around. Many Gnostics like the Valentinians attended Orthodox Churches and valued its sacraments dearly; but maintained their inner connection to GOD in their inner temple more closely identified with “Christian mysticism” seen demonstrated by some of the most elevated Catholic Saints.
    Many early Christian groups were known as members of the way, and before the establishment of dogmas, had diverse approaches. Consequently, this diversity attracted some really “strange” gnostic groups jumping on the bandwagon (which Paul fervently warned about) with various levels of personality groups and backwards ideas attributed by them that seem to have made into “gnostic canon” although there is no such thing definable, these strange backwards ideas are thought of as heretical Gnosticism. My point is not all gnostic Christian groups were cut from the same cloth or in agreement. A gnostic in simplicity, rather than focusing only on a dualistic theology, seek to identify their inner knowledge as Faith and Wisdom uniting and rising above the fallen thought forms implanted here by following the path Jesus taught (who was Jewish, by a descendent of David) Love, Forgiveness, Kindness, Mercy, and Faith, this leads to inner experience and personal revelation.
    Yes I am aware some represented gnostic groups seemed anti semetic in their approach spiritually, but that was not always so in many of the allegories and spiritual concepts laid out in many of the most prominent gospels. These definitions of Gnostics are hard to access without the words and thoughts of the Gnostics themselves, most information we have gathered is from heresiologists at far conclusions, and also the mixture of different groups within the Nag Hammadi codexes which was a library of many gnostic circles near and far biblical canon.
    We see a vastness in expression that modern day scholarship has a hard time grasping, but there are gnostics who feel at peace and even in alignment with religious Christianity, they look for the meaning behind the meaning, just like the parables taught us to do. Deeper messages cloaked in parable it was to invite us into the meaning of the Savior’s words. “The Kingdom is inside you, and it is outside you”

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