How We Believe* I: Faith and Revelation

 

Faith is to believe what you do not see; the reward of this faith is to see what you believe.
—St. Augustine

Faith is the substance of things hoped for; the evidence of things not seen.
—Hebrews 11:1

Faith and reason are like two wings on which the human spirit rises to the contemplation of truth; and God has placed in the human heart a desire to know the truth.
—Pope St. John Paul II, Fides et Ratio

HOW AND WHY WE BELIEVE

Let’s talk about belief first, that you think something is true. Clearly there is a difference between the statements “I believe in one God…” (the Credo) and “I believe it’s going to rain tomorrow.”   An obvious difference is what one is willing to do or to pay to act on one’s belief. The Christian martyrs were willing to suffer and to die for their beliefs’; ‘ you might be willing to bet five dollars that it will rain tomorrow, but not your life, no matter what the weather forecast is.

Accordingly, there are degrees of belief, which in fact can be quantified using various techniques in subjective probability and decision theory (see “Probability and the Art of Judgment” and “Subjective Probability–The Real Thing” by Richard Jeffrey).  To explore these methods in detail would require another book, but those interested can go to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy articles .

PASCAL’S WAGER

Possibly the most famous example of quantifying belief and using outcome probabilities as a guide to action is Pascal’s Wager, in which Pascal argues that belief in God is the prudent choice, given the existence of an afterlife (even though the probability of that existence might be infinitesimally small).   Objections, most of which are substantial to Pascal’s arguments, have been raised and countered (see  Pascal’s Wager Revisited–The Pearl of Great Price)

Nevertheless, we don’t always act rationally based on our beliefs. We will bet on the lottery, even if the odds–expectation value for a likely gain–are not in our favor. We will take on insurance, even if it is likely to be a losing proposition in the long run. As Pascal himself argued (Pensees, #233), it is not always easy to believe based on prudence and rationality:

I am so made that I cannot believe. What, then, would you have me do?

Pascal replies:

Endeavor then to convince yourself, not by increase of proofs of God, but by the abatement of your passions. You would like to attain faith and do not know the way; you would like to cure yourself of unbelief, and ask the remedy for it…There are people…who are cured of an ill of which you would be cured. Follow the way by which they began: acting as if they believed, taking the holy water, having masses said, etc.

FAKE IT UNTIL YOU MAKE IT?

Now can one “fake it until you make it” as Pascal suggests? Or will the sacraments be ineffective, because the motive of the recipient is mercenary? Which of the Catechism dicta below are appropriate?

The sacraments are efficacious signs of grace….They bear fruit in those who receive them with the required dispositions.
—Catholic Catechism, 1131

The sacrament is not wrought by the righteousness of either the celebrant or the recipient, but by the power of God.
—Catholic Cathechism, 1128

The second suggests that if one prays for faith, then the “topdown” approach will work, starting from the head  and eventually through to the heart, or, as Pascal suggests:

…at each step you take on this road you will see so great certainty of gain, so much nothingness in what you risk, that you will at last recognize that you have wagered for something certain and infinite, for which you have given nothing.
—Blaise Pascal, Pensees, art. 233

FAITH AND REASON

So we can see that belief, as manifested in faith, is not an absolute, a two-valued yes or no, but a quality that is measured on a continuous scale, and that can be implemented by other than strictly rational means.

Faith is to believe what you do not see; the reward of this faith is to see what you believe.
—St. Augustine of Hippo, Sermones 4.1.1

As the quote from St. Augustine puts it, faith is belief in that which is not confirmed by direct evidence from the senses. On the other hand, what about revelation, such as the vision St. Paul had on the road to Damascus? That is surely a personal experience, not experienced directly by others. Revelation—the direct word from God or His messengers, the Angels—is not confirmable. It happens once, and even if it happens to more than one person (as in the descent of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost), one still has to believe the word of those to whom it occurred.

St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross (Edith Stein) explored the relationship between philosophy and theology, or equivalently, between faith and reason. In her work, Finite and Eternal Being, she proposed a hierarchy, that faith went beyond rational knowledge:

Since the ultimate ground of all existence [alles Seienden] is unfathomable, everything which is seen in this ultimate perspective moves into that ‘dark light’ of faith, and everything intelligible is placed in a setting with an incomprehensible background.
–St. Teresa Benedicta, “Finite and Eternal Being,” p.25

I’ll put this another way:  the fundamental question we ask is “Why are we here?”   Science might be able to say how our physical bodies came to be here, but science can’t answer the question: “Why did we come to be.   Science would respond: “that question is meaningless, can’t be answered by scientific methods.”  Only faith can give a satisfactory answer to that why question.

*NOTE

This is the first section in ESSAY 2: How We Believe; How Science Works. in the web-book, Truth Cannot Contradict Truth.  The other Sections deal with “Rational Inquiry,” “How Science Works,”  “The Limits of Science—What Science Can’t Do.”

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